Monday, August 24, 2020

Economics Oligopoly

Primary monetary highlights of an Oligopoly and key financial hypotheses of value fixing. This piece of the coursework means to recognize and clarify the primary financial highlights of an Oligopoly and furthermore the key monetary speculations which impact the cost of an item or administration. This part manages the hypothetical parts of Oligopoly and the later part accentuates on the down to earth utilizations of the hypotheses and oligopoly features.According to Pass et al (2000), â€Å"Oligopoly, a sort of market structure is described by a couple of firms and numerous purchasers, where the heft of market flexibly is in the control of moderately hardly any enormous firms who thus offer to numerous little buyers†. To depict the level of oligopoly, fixation proportion is frequently used. Focus proportion is the proportion of the piece of the overall industry of the biggest four firms in the business communicated as a rate. A low focus proportion proposes a significant level of rivalry and the other way around for.As there are hardly any players ruling the business, every player or an oligopolist is said or prone to know about others course of activities. The choice taken by one player appears to influence the choice taken by others and key arranging by the organizations needs to consider the conceivable reaction of different members (Wikipedia, 2010). For instance, an appropriate round of chess relies upon how well you read your opponent’s moves, comparably in oligopoly; methodologies are formulated dependent on the moves of contending market firms.The explanation behind presence oligopoly as expressed by Maunder et al (1991) is for the accomplishment of economies of scale. Firms will in general decrease their normal expense of creation by expanding their size of activity and since the little firms have higher normal costs, they will in general leave business or be consumed by the bigger ones. The highlights of oligopoly are:- a. Number of Firms :- The significant component of an oligopoly is the quantity of firms. Despite the fact that there are an enormous number of firms working in a specific industry, just a bunch of firms hold the significant offer between them. . Relationship: †An extremely particular element of an oligopoly is reliance. At the point when a not many enormous firms work in a specific industry, their exercises or system can't be autonomous of one another. In contrast to restraining infrastructure, where the monopolist need not stress over the response of its opponents as there are none, an oligopolist contemplates the potential responses of all adversary firms. For instance, an organization considering a value decrease of its items may wish to evaluate the odds of value decrease by the opponent organization and thus beginning a value war. . Benefit Maximization Condition: †The organizations in an oligopoly by and large consent to co-work and go about as one monopolist as it creates high benefi ts (Begg and Ward 2007). This sort of formal conniving understanding is known as a cartel. An oligopoly boosts benefits where the minimal income rises to the negligible expense. This is otherwise called benefit expansion condition. Value ELASTIC UNIT ELASTIC P MC, AC PROFIT MAXIMIZING OUTPUT O MR Quantity (Source: Begg and Ward 2007) d.Perfect Knowledge: †Oligopolists are said to have an ideal information about their expense and request works however a lesser data about different firms (Wikipedia, 2010). e. Passage Barrier: †One of the fundamental significant highlights of oligopoly likewise is the section obstruction. There are high passage obstructions that control another firm from entering a market. For instance, the obstructions can be the economies of scale, access to costly and complex innovation, lower costs for a set up firm, brand dependability, licensed creation process and key activity by occupant firms etc.The table beneath gives the market focus in various ve ntures. As examined before, the enormous barely any organizations structure a cartel and set a cost. When the individuals from the cartel concur on the value, they contend with one another utilizing non value rivalry so as to pick up the greatest income. There are different manners by which the organizations fix the cost. One of them being inferred plot, where the organizations concur on a value set by a set up pioneer. This is otherwise called predominant firm value initiative as the value setting firm is the prevailing firm in the industry.The other way is the barometric firm value authority, where the value head is the one whose costs mirror the economic situations in the most steady structure (Sloman et al, 2010). To fix costs, the makers must have the option to control the market gracefully. Different types of value fixing in inferred intrigue is normal cost estimating, where makers include a specific level of benefit on normal expenses and cost benchmarking, where firms raise the cost uniquely up to a benchmark as of now set.Price fixing is accomplished by the contending firms meeting up on a stage where they can concur on a typical evaluating and creation methodology in this way acting in a way in which an imposing business model works. This sort of plot is known as cartelisation. Cartels albeit prohibited in numerous nations, is hard for the requirement organizations to accumulate prove and punish the members. The amount for the cartel and the individual firm won't be equivalent to one firm separately will have the degree for additional expansion in efficiency to accomplish a circumstance where the negligible cost rises to the peripheral revenue.In such cases firms may choose to proceed with abundance flexibly which can prompt a value war and conflicting incomes to the business. Indeed, even without unmistakable agreement firms in an oligopoly can arrive at a state of benefit expansion when they carry on in a way reflected in â€Å"Nash Equilibriumâ⠂¬  (Begg and Ward 2007). 2B) Direct to Home (DTH) media business in India going about as an oligopoly. India has an absolute TV populace of around 135 million of which around 108 million have an entrance to link and satellite TV (Plugged in, 2010).The all out DTH sub base toward the finish of first quarter in the year 2010 was 23 million (Dish TV India Ltd, 2010) which was about only 1 million in the year 2006. Indian DTH industry has seen a whirlwind of exercises in the ongoing years after a monopolistic rule by Dish TV for two or three years. It is at present in a province of Oligopoly with the main four administrators controlling about 80% of the all out market. The significant players in the market are Dish TV by Zee gathering, TataSky-a joint endeavor by Tata and Star TV, Big TV by Anil Dhirubhai Ambani Group, Digital TV by Bharati Telemedia and SUN Direct from Sun TV.Since there are just 3 significant players in the DTH advertise, Indian DTH industry is an oligopoly. (Indiad th, 2010) The item offering by the opponent firms are pretty much comparative in nature with next to zero item separation. Among all the players, Sun Direct has basically stayed a provincial administrator who made a late introduction in the national scene. The substance or the channels are same with all the administrators excepting barely any exclusions and increases. The DTH business piece of the overall industry is as per the following. BRAND| MARKET SHARE| Dish TV| 30%|TataSky| 22%| Sun Direct| 25%| Big Tv| 13%| Airtel| 8%| D2H| 2%| (Source: http://www. pluggd. in/dth-industry-in-india-investigation 297/) From the information above we can see that Dish TV, TataSky and Sun Direct together hold the most extreme piece of the pie with over 75%. (Source: http://www. slideshare. net/) To affirm the oligopoly, we can utilize the Herfindahl-Hirschman list or the HHI. It gauges the size of the organizations comparable to the business and furthermore shows the measure of rivalry between th em. Scientifically, (Adapted from Pass et al, 2000)Here Si = piece of the overall industry of firm I in the market and N is the quantity of firms. Henceforth H = 302 + 222 + 252 + 132 + 82 + 22 H = 2246. With this estimation of H we can presume that this industry is an oligopoly. In spite of the fact that there is no sign of a plain conspiracy in the business, a more intensive glance at their value plan (fig 1. 1) can lead us to a vital or implied understanding between the players. The market is swirling with showcasing drives to earn piece of the overall industry and the client is as of now stacked with complimentary gifts like free establishment, free channels and the like.Going by the degree of venture and foundation the administrators need to collect however much endorser base as could be expected to be in a productive suggestion. They are anyway mindful of the opposition and are forgoing a value war. Such conduct of the administrators is normal for a non-value rivalry in Oligop oly. This is because of the interdependency of firms in the oligopoly and the key conduct can likewise be alluded to the â€Å"Nash Equilibrium† (Begg and Ward 2007). (Source: Slideshare. net/researchonIndia) Brand Name| PricePlan(inINR)/month| Dish TV| 135. 0| TataSky| 150. 00| Sun Direct| 115. 00| Videocon| 136. 00| Fig: 1. 1 (Source: Company sites, 2010) Now as in any oligopoly, it must be bolstered by section boundaries, both endogenous and exogenous. The common obstruction of section in this specific industry is basically connected with government authorizing and furthermore the force of capital venture required. Given that all the DTH administrators are as of now settled players in related areas, for example, telecom, media it gives them a vital preferred position as far as dispersion and content.For any new participant it could act like a key section boundary. Indian DTH advertise has continually been drawing in various players throughout the years given the expanding number of TV supporters. In spite of the fact that there have been section hindrances, organizations like Videocon alongside its front line innovation went into the market within the sight of built up players. The forefront innovation end up being a hindrance breaker. Videocon figured out how to assemble TVs with set top boxes which helped it build up its own client base.References Begg, D. , and Ward, D. (2007). Financial aspects for Business, second release. Berkshire: McGraw Hill Publication. Christopher Pass, Bryan Lowes and

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Commonly known

Electronic trade which Is ordinarily known as E-trade or E-business Is a cutting edge idea of working together. In layman's language, It Is the purchasing and selling of items and administrations over electronic frameworks which for the most part includes Internet. In this type of business the installment for products and enterprises is likewise done electronically I. E. By utilizing charge cards. This idea has arrived at its development in created nations like the US of America and joined Kingdom, however it is still new for rising economies of creating nations like Pakistan, India, andEgypt and so on. Online business is for the most part viewed as constrained to the business part of the business, yet it likewise involves the trading of information and installment part of the exchange. 1. 2 Types of E-business: E-trade Is for the most part partitioned into the accompanying sorts: 1. 2. 1 Business-to-Business (BOB): The BOB exchanges are occurring between business concerns I. E. Make rs, wholesalers, providers, merchants. Utilizations of internet business for BOB Involve productive exchanging as well as includes heap of exercises like anticipating of client request, stream of the required data among concerned gatherings, etc.Transactions with extreme customers by makers, agents, and so forth. Are anyway rejected from the region of BOB. 1. 2. 2 Business-to-shopper (BBC): BBC advert to a business exchange occurring between a maker, or retailer from one viewpoint, and an extreme customer for non-business use, then again. Opening an online store is anything but a major speculation today for a SEEM. In created nations retailers are selling wide scope of items and administrations over the net.They consider site as a significant piece of the limited time and publicizing effort alongside the utilization of different devices, for example, promoting indexes, paper promoting ND signage. Various favorable circumstances accumulate to both the retailers and buyers, Included a mong them are; Shopping can be quicker and increasingly advantageous; retailers gain admittance to bigger client base: retailers can make approach not exclusively to national yet additionally to worldwide clients; and cause lesser running expense than physical stores. There are additionally a few difficulties that are looked in web based business in utilizing its BBC model.The two significant obstacles that run over BBC web based business are, right off the bat, bringing and making enormous number of clients to purchase on the web, and furthermore, to make a client faithful to your online store for a more drawn out timeframe. Little retailers fundamentally think that its hard to keep up their intensity because of the fast changes occurring in innovation, changing client inclinations and keeping up lower costs. For the most part online clients are more cost cognizant and are handily enticed by somewhat lesser value, which makes It progressively hard for retailers to hold online clien ts. . 2. 3 Business-to-Employees (BEE): BEE online business by and large alludes to requesting for provisions by representatives which they use in their occupations, however this idea has now truly developed and incorporates substantially more. For effectively by utilizing BEE web based business. These requests are totally electronic in tauter and bosses are approached to support these requests Just to screen that representative doesn't surpasses its request limit. Honey bee permit the worker to get to their own records so as to refresh address data, and keep up their interior resume.A significant advantage that organizations have by embracing BEE innovations is that it has drastically decreased the regulatory expense and has likewise brought down the weight of HR division for keeping up representatives' data and records. 1. 2. 4 Consumer-to-Business (CB): CB online business alludes to a setting wherein buyers choose what they need to ay, and the sellers choose whether, or not to ac knowledge the purchaser ‘s offer. Coming up next is a case of CB. An individual needs to fly from Appeaser to Karachi, yet has just RSI. 8000 in the financial balance to make the installment for this round-trip.He publicizes on an Internet CB website, searching for aircrafts that are offering this full circle for RSI. 8000, or less. The principle highlight of the Internet here is that it makes a fragment of clients with explicit need of administrations where various carriers will be keen on offering those administrations. 1. 2. 5 Consumer-to-shopper (ICC): ICC internet business alludes to a setting where customers among themselves purchase and sell merchandise. The most famous case of ICC internet business is â€Å"e-straight', it is a site which brings an enormous number of individuals from all over America and I-J, give them a stage where they can sell their own belongings.This idea has additionally been embraced in Pakistan. Most mainstream model from Pakistan would be â⠂¬Å"Passels. Com† where vehicles are being sold by their proprietors, and are bought by different shoppers. ICC web based business has its own focal points, including coming up next are a few: access to more extensive market, no middle person is included, advantageous or purchasers to look through the item they are searching for with the necessary determinations. Other than five significant kinds of internet business, coming up next are the names of some not all that mainstream sorts of e?commerce which are not implied for business use.Government-to-Government (EGG), Government-to-Employee (GEE), Government-to-Business (BOB), Business-to-Government (826), Government-to-resident (EGG), Citizen-to-Government (COG), are among these methods of trade. These modes are predominantly utilized for authoritative work, for example, enrollments to licenses reestablishment, documenting assessments to organizations, and so forth. This examination is mostly identified with Business to Consum er (BBC) online business which is normally known as E-following or virtual storefront.So before continuing forward in the report it is smarter to initially clarify E-following quickly and survey its history. 1. 3 E-Tailing: E-following (electronic retailing) is the selling of buyer items on the net, instances of merchandise generally executed incorporates books, articles of clothing, games, style adornments, and so forth. The possibility of E-following was one of the discussed point, at whatever point conversations identified with web occurred among financial experts, investigators and business people back in the year 1995. E-following is equivalent with business-to-customer (BBC) transaction.E-following started to work for some huge organizations and some Seems in America in the year 1997 when Dell Computer announced that multimillion dollar orders were taken at its Web website. Around the same time Barnes and Nobles e-tail site was propelled. This site was propelled in scramble in the wake of watching e-tail site was opened on indistinguishable footings from that of Amazon. In the year 1997 numerous organizations scripturally declared their accomplishments they had made in their e-following business, for instance offer of the millionth vehicle over the web via Auto-By-Tell, and Nielsen Media's recorded 10 million individuals buying products on the Web in the equivalent year.Growing prominence of e-following brought about the advancement of programming programs that were utilized for making on the web indexes, and furthermore had administration devices that will help organizations that are working on the web. 1. 4 Key drivers of E-following: Different key drivers of E-following are distinguished by numerous specialists throughout the years on the grounds that the comprehension of these key elements, E-following patterns in various nations can without much of a stretch be broke down. Coming up next are a portion of the primary key drivers that are by and large talked about by numerous authors and analysts.

Thursday, July 23, 2020

The First Football Game of the Year

The First Football Game of the Year One of the best parts about going to a Big Ten school like Illinois is the sports atmosphere. So when September comes around, college football is on everyones mind. However, this year was special. Former Chicago Bears head coach Lovie Smith was hired back in the spring to coach the Illinois football team. Ever since then, the Lovie Smith hype has been real. He promised the school that #WeWillWin. To add to the excitement, Illinois gave every student two free tickets to see the first football game vs. Murray State, so no one had any excuse to not go to the game. I came to the stadium 30 minutes before game time and listened to the best marching band in the country, The Marching Illini, blast their tunes. Our student section, Block I, was full of students with their orange shirts. There were multiple Lovie chants happening throughout the section. The game ended up being so fun to watch, and the Illini went off to a great start with scoring multiple touchdowns in the first quarter alone. My personal favorite part was the Block I card stunt I got to participate in during halftime. We were each given some colored cards and were told when to flip the cards. On the jumbotron, you can see a cool design made from the cards. This Lovie design was cool. It was also cool seeing Coach Lovie Smith on the field in person. Growing up in Chicago, you saw him on television when talking about the Chicago Bears, but to see him on your campus, coaching your team is surreal. The Illinois football team ended up defeating Murray State 52-3. Im super excited to see the team succeed once we start facing our Big Ten rivals throughout the fall. If you visit campus in the next few months, I recommend heading over to Memorial Stadium for a Saturday afternoon game to see the Illinois team in action, and hopefully, youll see a win! Daniel Class of 2018 I’m an Advertising major in the College of Media. I’m from a northwest suburb of Chicago called Buffalo Grove. I chose Illinois because it was the first university in the entire world to offer an Advertising major, which is pretty cool!

Friday, May 22, 2020

How Reflective Practice Helps Teachers - 1816 Words

Throughout this piece of writing I am going to critically discuss the assertion that teachers themselves, are their own most important resource when it comes to the development of their professional expertise. When evaluating this claim I will address a number of topics including reflective practice, professional expertise and the correlation between them; as well as this I will refer back to the GTCNI framework and what it has to say about teacher effectiveness and the variety of tools that teachers use in order to be successful. I am going to talk about the key theorists who brought about the idea of reflective practice, such as Dewy and Schon, and I will also outline the different models of reflective practice that are in existence today. Although reflective practice is generally deemed a positive approach, I will talk about possible complications or drawbacks that can be associated with it. As a whole, this essay will evaluate how reflective practice helps teachers to develop the ir competence and professional expertise, and it will assess other methods and tools which teachers incorporate in order to be successful, in comparison to reflective practice. First of all, I am going to talk about the concept of ‘professional expertise’. According to (Pollard et al, 2014 pg. 69) â€Å"teaching is a highly complex and skilled activity which, above all, requires classroom teachers to exercise judgement in deciding how to act.† Therefore to be successful in such a highly complexShow MoreRelatedReflective Reflection On Reflective Practice1332 Words   |  6 Pages Reflective Practice in Special Education Using Action Research Sunny Suzanne West St. Joseph’s University Course Title â€Æ' Abstract: Reflective Practices in Special Education Using Action Research Title and Link to Study: Promoting Reflective Practices in Special Education through Action Research: Recommendations from Pre-service Teachers; Paula Wenner Conroy http://journals.library.wisc.edu/index.php/networks Research Problem and Purpose of the Study: What is reflectiveRead MoreThe Activity Of Doing Action Research Among Iranian Teachers1540 Words   |  7 Pagesactivity of doing action research among Iranian teachers should be highlighted as well as expanded either through giving questionnaires, or participating in discussion workshops, interviewing with professional teachers, since reflection is an unfamiliar terminology among Iranian learners and teachers which has not been practically used yet. Thus, they can gain the best possible reflective and successful as well as practical and effective outcome. Teachers on the other hand have the responsibility ofRead MoreWhat Effective Practice Really Means1690 Words   |  7 PagesGTCNI competence Framework states, â€Å"Teachers should keep curricular, subject and pedagogical knowledge up-to-date through reflection, self-study and collaboration with colleagues.† (Internet source 1) By taking this into consideration it is then evident that just like in everyday life, if teach ers want to become truly effective practitioners they must develop their capacity for critically reflecting upon their practice. No person every stops learning, so no matter how long someone has been teaching,Read MoreReflection On Reflective Teaching1502 Words   |  7 Pagescorrectly. However, if a teacher will take the time to continually practice reflective teaching, the teacher will be able to identify underlying beliefs, which can then lead to positive changes and improvements in his or her own teaching. Therefore, for me reflective teaching is my own personalized professional development. Before taking any grad classes and before being required to reflect on every field experience, I always thought that I had a good grasp on reflective teaching. I was activelyRead MoreReflective Practice in the Classroom1629 Words   |  7 PagesReflective practice – A tool for learning Introduction/Rationale When something goes wrong or something unexpected happens during a lesson or activity, we ask ourselves questions such as, could I have done something to avoid it? These experiences usually make us grow and we learn from experience, and we will be better prepared to face the situation if it happened again. 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Thursday, May 7, 2020

Essay about Network Security Monitoring Tools - 873 Words

There are numerous network security devices and tools available to aid in computer network defense, and these tools are often relied upon for protecting against increasingly sophisticated, stealthy, and damaging attacks. When acting alone, the current generation of security devices has an exceedingly difficult time providing an effective defense against such threats, and the situation is particularly grim for targeted or novel attacks. It has been demonstrated that a number of interoperable systems must be implemented to fully protect a network; a strategy known as Defense in Depth. Due to the multitude of security devices and device categories available, it can be very difficult to identify the correct tools for meeting security†¦show more content†¦Other than this, they essentially work via the same mechanism and share similar goals. There four general types of IDPS: Network-Based, Host-Based, Wireless, and Network Behavior Analysis (NBA) [NIST]. In practice, most products are either Network-Based (NIDPS) or Host-Based (HIDPS). HIDPS observes only a single host (in many cases a vital device such as a database server), which gives them the benefits of seeing unencrypted traffic and having direct input to the machine they are on. Wireless systems have many unique vulnerabilities and Wireless IDPS will not be discussed in this report. 2.2 NIDPS Goals Some vendors have begun to merge the Network-Based and Network Behavior Analysis types together, and the resulting device will be the first focus of this report. These NIDPS types will monitor protocol activity on the interface or network segment on which they are connected and will analyze it for signs of possible incidents. Incidents are defined as the exploiting of a vulnerability to attack the confidentiality, integrity or availability of an information system [Pfleeger]. 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Hackers who do intentionally tamper with the companys network often do so because they are tempted by assets they know are poorly protected. Weak security policies present the image that a company does not truly value its assets, which in turn attracts the petty thief and curiosity seeker. Therefore, the preventive element of any network security system should include a strong and enforceable security policy for its employees to follow, re-enforced by a form of technical protection

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Driving Under the Influence of a Cell Phone Free Essays

Driving Under the Influence of a Cell Phone Dameatrius McCreary, age 5 was killed when he was hit by a driver that had reached down to pick up a ringing cell-phone that had fallen to the floor of the car. Dameatrius had just gotten off a school bus that was dropping him off. The school bus was parked, had its warning lights flashing and a stop sign out when he was hit by the vehicle (11 Reasons to ban). We will write a custom essay sample on Driving Under the Influence of a Cell Phone or any similar topic only for you Order Now Each year in the United States, talking on a cell phone while driving causes an estimated 2600 motor vehicle-related deaths and 330,000 moderate to critical injuries (Lissy). Driving is a complex task at the best of times. A driver speeds up and slows down, steers, changes lanes, scans the road for hazards, checks mirrors, merges, and brakes. When in traffic, drivers must process a great deal of information in a very short time. Talking on a cell phone while driving greatly impacts ones’ ability to drive safely. Despite the known risk, many people still use a cell phone while driving. Cell phones are not only cognitively distracting, but they affect peripheral vision and cause reaction time to become much slower. By banning cell-phone usage while driving, the number of deaths and injuries could be decreased significantly. Lawmakers need to push this issue into law before more innocent lives are taken. Some people feel they are experienced enough drives and have the ability to drive and talk on a cell phone. My brother thinks he is the best driver in the world. We have had many discussions on how dangerous it is to focus more on your phone than on the road. He feels that no amount of talking on the phone or texting is going to be detrimental to his driving. I have found this common attitude with many of my family and friends who drive with the phone stuck to their ear. This behavior is not due to a lack of awareness of the dangers. They truly believe they are in control of their environment and overestimate their own ability to drive safely while talking on the phone. This superman mind-set clouds their way of thinking. In fact many people know that using a cell phone while driving is dangerous, and some even consider it more risky than eating or putting on make-up in the car. In a focus group, held in 2000, benefits of driving while talking on a cell phone were discussed. Some of the argued benefits were to, â€Å"expand productivity for commuters, improve mental alertness, and diminish the tendency to speed (Lissy 44). In another study conducted in 2002 by Hammond and Horswill showed â€Å"drivers with a high desire for control were more likely to engage in risky driving behaviors than were those with a low desire for control† (Schlehofer 1108). It is this high desire for control that causes drivers to overlook the danger that is involved in talking on the phone and focus on what they are able to accomplish while doing it. It is true if you talk on the phone while driving you will probably get more accomplished, but is it worth the risk? Talking on a cell phone is a cognitive distraction plain and simple. Several studies show that a driver paying attention to a conversation on a cell phone is distracted simply because he is paying attention to the conversation, reducing the attention he is paying to driving and what is going on around him (Ropeik and Gray 71). Not only is talking a distraction, but today our phones are loaded with applications, which usually require two hands to operate. We have all witnessed drivers that have one hand on the wheel and the other hand typing, or driving with their knee while texting. When your hands are holding your phone, or dialing or receiving a call, they’re not holding the steering wheel or helping to control the vehicle. Think of the last time you came upon someone driving in the left hand lane while traveling under the speed limit. A lot of the time they are talking on their phone. Many times they merge into your lane and never realize that you are even there. Cell phone usage may decrease speed, but it also creates more of a hazard for drivers and everyone else around them. Research at the University of Utah suggests that cognitive distraction may be the most important distraction since their test subjects did equally poorly when using hands-free or hand-held devices (Ropeik and Gray 71). Talking on a cell phone while driving, dramatically affects your peripheral vision. It has been claimed that driving while talking on a cell phone can be as or more dangerous than driving drunk. I know that when I have been talking on the phone while driving and change lanes or turn, it is not as easy to see other cars. It has only taken a couple of close calls for me to realize that my life and that of my family is not worth the 5 minute conversation I could be having with someone. A study done by the Southern College of Optometry to measure visual fields with and without a cell phone conversation taking place suggests that cell phone conversations tend to artificially constrict the peripheral awareness as measured by a visual field. This suggests that cell phone use while riving can decrease the perceptual visual field, making the driver less aware of the surroundings and more susceptible to accident (Maples et al 36). Think of those times you have picked up your phone to see who is calling or to read a text you have just received. As you look at the phone, glancing up every so often to see what is ahead of you, are you paying attention to what is around you? Are you able to look over your shoulder to make sure no one is in your blind spot before changing lanes? Generally you have no idea what is behind or on the side of you. Suddenly you are so involved in reading that text or taking that phone call that everything around you disappears. Driving requires the use of all of your faculties. If you are looking for your phone, or at your phone to make a call, you are not looking at the road. Furthermore, the reaction time decreases dramatically when using a phone while driving. University of Utah psychology professor David Strayer stated, â€Å"Drivers talking on cell phones were 18% slower to react to brake lights and once the driver hits the brakes, it takes them longer to get back into the normal flow of traffic. The net result is they are impeding the overall flow of traffic† (Britt). Stop and go traffic is already frustrating, but drivers who are paying more attention to what is going on with their phone than with traffic just amplifies the problem. Studies of driver performance, observing drivers both on simulators and in the field, have shown that mobile phone use while driving can adversely affect reaction time, swerving ability, and the ability to execute difficult driving tasks (Ropeik and Gray 71). Driving with both hands on the wheel and having your eyes focused on the road the whole time is hard enough. Now add the distraction of a cell phone and one is bound to have problems. As much as we would like to think that we can do multiple things at the same time, the reality is no one is perfect. Case in point: On Thanksgiving weekend, 1999, John and Carole Hall were killed when a Naval Academy midshipman crashed into their parked car. The driver said in court that when he looked up from the cell phone he was dialing, he was 3 feet from the car and had no time to stop (Stockwell B8). University of Utah research found that test subjects took longer to react to traffic signals and completely missed twice as many of those signals when they were on the phone (Ropeik and Gray 71). Matt Wilhelm was cycling near Urbana, Illinois when he was struck and killed by a driver that was downloading ring tones to her cell phone. Matt’s death has prompted cell phone legislation that has been signed by Illinois governor Rod Blagojevich. The new law teaches teen drivers the importance of avoiding distraction while they are driving (11 Reasons to ban). Recently Oprah has been promoting a No Phone Zone pledge challenging her viewers to stop using their cell phones while driving. They pledge to not text or talk on their cell phone. We can all take this pledge and help get the word out how dangerous it is to let our cell phones distract us from safe driving. Driving is a complex task that requires the driver’s full attention. Smart drivers keep their hands on the wheel, their eyes on the road and focus more attention on driving than talking on the phone. Because of increased injuries and deaths surrounding accidents involving cell phones, we must begin to take this problem seriously. How many more lives need to be claimed before we take a stand? The time is now to call your local representative and voice your opinion before someone you love is affected by this dangerous habit. It is time we put the brake on our cell phone usage while driving. Banning cell phone use while driving may not totally eliminate the number of deaths or accidents that happen, but it will dramatically decrease them for sure. How many lives can we save by simply putting our cell phones down and concentrating on actually driving? Works Cited â€Å"11 Reasons to ban Cell-Phone Use While Driving. DrivingLaws. org 951online. LLC, 2009. Web. 6 July 2010. Britt, Robert Roy. â€Å"Drivers on Cell Phones Kill Thousands; Snare Traffic Technology. † Live Science. com. TechMedia Network. 01/02/2005. Web. 5 July 2010. Lissy M. P. H. , Karen S. , et al. â€Å"Cellular Phone Use While Driving: Risks and benefits. † Cell Phone Free Driving. Harvard Center for Risk Analysis: Harvard School of Public Health. July 2000. Web. 1 July 2010. Maples, W. C. , et al. â€Å"The Effects of Cell Phone Use on Peripheral Vision. † Optometry 79 (2008): 36-42. Academic Search Premier. Web. 5 July 2010. Ropeik, David, and George Gray. â€Å"Cellular Telephones and Driving. † Risk: A Practical Guide for Deciding What’s Really Safe and What’s Really Dangerous in the World Around You. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin Company, 2002. 70-75. NetLibrary. Web. 1 July 2010. Schlehofer, Michele M. , et al. â€Å"Ps ychological Predictor of College Students’ Cell Phone Use While Driving. † Accident Analysis and Prevention 42. 4 (2010):1107-1112. Academic Search Premier. Web. 1 July 2010. Stockwell, Jamie. â€Å"Phone Use Faulted in Collision. † Washington Post 6 Dec. 2000: B1+. Web. 13 July 2010. How to cite Driving Under the Influence of a Cell Phone, Papers

Monday, April 27, 2020

Investigating Membrane Permeability Essay Example

Investigating Membrane Permeability Essay à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 8 test tubescoea ear seeaeaw orea eak inea foea ea.à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Test tube rackcodg dgr sedgdgw ordg dgk indg fodg dg!à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Measuring cylinderà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Bunsen burnerà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Knifeà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Beakerà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 1 beetrootà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Dilute hydrochloric acidcobf bfr sebfbfw orbf bfk inbf fobf bf!à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Dilute sodium hydroxide solutioncobg bgr sebgbgw orbg bgk inbg fobg bg.à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Ethanol abidzaman, please do not redistribute this paper. We work very hard to create this website, and we trust our visitors to respect it for the good of other students. Please, do not circulate this paper elsewhere on the internet. Anybody found doing so will be permanently banned.à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Distilled watercogb gbr segbgbw orgb gbk ingb fogb gb:à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Thermometerà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Tongscocb cbr secbcbw orcb cbk incb focb cb.à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Tripodcofd fdr sefdfdw orfd fdk infd fofd fd:à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Mat lGExVw Visit coursework cd in cd fo cd for cd more hypothesis cd Do cd not cd redistribute lGExVwà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Cork borerMethod:1. I first cut three discs each about 2mm thick from the cylinder, which was cut out of the beetroot using a corer and place them in a test tube containing 10cm3 distilled water. This was my test tube number1.coea ear seeaeaw orea eak inea foea ea.2. I then cut 21 more discs and rinse them under the running water, until the pink water collected in the beaker was clear.coeb ebr seebebw oreb ebk ineb foeb eb.3. I placed three of the 21 washed discs, in each four test tubes.cogf gfr segfgfw orgf gfk ingf fogf gf.To test tube 2 I added 10cm3 of distilled water This cours from www.coursework.infoTo test tube 3 I added 10cm3 of ethanol This coursework from www.coursework.infoTo test tube 4 I added 10cm3 of dilute hydrochloric acid wEQIk Visit coursework gd in gd fo gd for gd more dissertation gd Do gd not gd redistribute wEQIkTo test tube 5 I added 10cm3 of dilute sodium hydroxide solution U1OJsuKR from U1OJsuKR coursewrok U1OJsuKR work U1OJsuKR info U1OJsuKR4. In three test tubes each containing three beetroot discs, I added 10 cm3 of distilled water and placed them in a beaker containing water over a buns burner. I also placed a thermometer in the beaker. 8yv from 8yv coursewrok 8yv work 8yv info 8yv5. I took the first test tube out when the temperature reached 40 This work from www.coursework.info6. At 65, I removed the second test tubecofa far sefafaw orfa fak infa fofa fa.7. The last test tube was removed at 100coda dar sedadaw orda dak inda foda da;8. I then compared the test tubes and recorded my results. abidzaman, please do not redistribute this writing. We work very hard to create this website, and we trust our visitors to respect it for the good of other students. Please, do not circulate this writing elsewhere on the internet. Anybody found doing so will be permanently banned.Results:codf dfr sedfdfw ordf dfk indf fodf df:Number of test tube Carstens oppressed abidzamans structuration idea.Contents coeb ebr seebebw oreb ebk ineb foeb eb:Observationcobe ber sebebew orbe bek inbe fobe be.1 J1cd Visit coursework fb in fb fo fb for fb more cours fb Do fb not fb redistribute J1cdDistilled water and 3 beetroot discscodg dgr sedgdgw ordg dgk indg fodg dg.The colour of the water changed to pink but the beetroot stayed the same colour. This coursework from www.coursework.info2 Austen obfuscated abidzamans functionalism theory.Distilled water and 3 washed beetrootscoeg egr seegegw oreg egk ineg foeg eg.The colour of the water stayed the same and the beetroots also stayed the same colourcobb bbr sebbbbw orbb bbk inbb fobb bb.3cofe fer sefefew orfe fek infe fofe fe.Ethanol andcobb bbr sebbbbw orbb bbk inbb fobb bb:3 washed beetroots This project from www.coursework.infoThe colour of ethanol changed to light pink and the beetroot lost its dark pink colour and became light pink IgqV Visit coursework fe in fe fo fe for fe more cours fe Do fe not fe redistribute IgqV4 UZ9ubi from UZ9ubi cours ewrok UZ9ubi work UZ9ubi info UZ9ubiDilute hydrochloric acid and 3 washed beetroots Foucault suppressed abidzamans structuration idea.The colour of hydrochloric acid changed to very dark pink almost purple and the beetroot became darker than it was before, dark purple.coef efr seefefw oref efk inef foef ef.5coeg egr seegegw oreg egk ineg foeg eg;Dilute sodium hydroxide and 3 washed beetrootscodg dgr sedgdgw ordg dgk indg fodg dg:The colour of sodium hydroxide solution changed to pale yellow and the beetroot became completely yellow (bright yellow). FZ6IyuyyO Visit coursework da in da fo da for da more essay da Do da not da redistribute FZ6IyuyyO6coca car secacaw orca cak inca foca ca;Distilled water and 3 washed beetroots heated to 40coff ffr seffffw orff ffk inff foff ff.There was no change in the colour of the water and the beetroot stayed the same colour. No change in both. This dissertation from www.coursework.info7coea ear seeaeaw orea eak inea foea ea.Distilled water and 3 was hed beetroots This writing from www.coursework.infoHeated to 65coeb ebr seebebw oreb ebk ineb foeb eb:The water became pale pink and the beetroot became slightly paler. This was mostly visible around the edges of the beetroot. Q0u Visit coursework fg in fg fo fg for fg more essay fg Do fg not fg redistribute Q0u8 Foucault enveloped abidzamans structuration hypothesis.Distilled water and 3 washed beetroots heated to 100 TozF from TozF coursewrok TozF work TozF info TozFThe water became very pink almost red and the beetroot became very palecoed edr seededw ored edk ined foed ed!Analysis of the results: Test tube 1: As we cut the beetroot discs out of the cylinder we damage some cells and break them up so when the water is added to the beetroot discs, it crosses the broken membrane of the damaged cells. Anthocyanin, the red pigments, inside the damaged cells are mixed with the water and therefore the colour of the water changes to pink.cobc bcr sebcbcw orbc bck inbc fobc bc:The reason the colour of the beetroot discs do not change is that the phospholipid bilayer, which is a major constituent of the cell surface membrane, is impermeable to water and water-soluble substances. Therefore water cannot cross the membrane and change the colour of the beetroot discs.cocd cdr secdcdw orcd cdk incd focd cd.Test tube 2: The beetroot discs in this test tube and the rest of the test tubes are washed so that there are no pigments left in the damaged cells to affect the outcome of the experiment.The reason that the colour of the beetroots has not changed is the same explanation that was given above for test tube1. The water cannot cross the membrane so there is no change in thecogb gbr segbgbw orgb gbk ingb fogb gb;colour of the beetroot discs. Also this time there are no red pigments to mix with the water so the colour of the water stays the same. This test tube acts as a control.Test tube 3: The cell surface membrane isa double layer of phospholipid molecules,which are arran ged tail-to-tail. This layer is selective and only allows some things to pass through for example fat-soluble molecules such as lipids and steroid. This essay from www.coursework.infoProtein pores Austen denied abidzamans marxism .Ethanol dissolves lipids therefore it is able to cross the membrane. Inside the cell it mixes with the red pigments and so its colour changes to pink. Now because there are fewer pigments inside the cell, the beetroot discs do not look as red as before. That is why they look lighter.Test tube 4: Proteins form from long chains of amino acids that are joined together by peptide bonds. In the cell membrane, in between phospholipid molecules there are protein pores that create channels through which soluble substances can pass. Hydrochloric acid attacks the peptide bonds in protein bonds and destroys them. It then crosses the membrane and enters the cell and mixes and reacts with the red pigment and therefore the colour of the beetroot discs changes to purple. It then diffuses through the water and makes the colour of the water purple as well.coaf afr seafafw oraf afk inaf foaf af.Test tube 5: Sodium hydroxide also attacks the peptide bonds and breaks them. However this solution has another affect. When it mixes with the pigments inside the cell, it changes the PH of the solution to acidic. This is clear because the colour of the solution is changed to yellow. This writing from www.coursework.infoTest tubes 6,7,8: Looking at the results of these test tubes, it is clear that the permeability of the cell membrane decreases as the temperature increases. This is because of the nature of the cell membrane and its protein pores. The features of the cell membrane can only keep and hold together until certain temperature. When the temperature has passed its boundary then the cell membrane starts to lose its shape. At 40 there is no change in the colour of the water or the beetroot discs because the temperature is still not high enough. The chang e becomes visible at 65 when the colour of the water has changed to pale pink and the beetroots have become slightly lighter. This shows that the membrane must have been damaged and that is why water has passed through it. Austen suppressed abidzamans marxism .At 100, because of the high temperature proteins are denaturalised and the cell membrane has been destroyed and the colour of water is almost red because it contains nearly all the red pigments. The beetroot discs are very pale, as they have lost all their pigments (the redness of a beetroot is due to its red pigments). On the scale of 0-5, where 0 is the lightest and 5 is the darkest:Test tube 6 would be 0.Test tube 7 would be 3Test tube 8 would be 5 .Conclusion Durkheim suppressed abidzamans realism .à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ The cell surface membrane is impermeable to water and water-soluble substances Foucault suppressed abidzamans postmodernism .à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ The beetroot can be used as sort of a universal indicatorà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ The per meability of the cell membrane decreases with the increase of temperaturecocbImplementingSafety.To carry out the experiment fairly it was compulsory to ensure that the beetroot was diced into precisely one centimetre cubed segments. To obtain these segments we had to bore into the beetroot to obtain a cylinder shape with a constant diameter, to be sure that the borer couldnt harm us it was necessary to hold the beetroot securely making sure that your hand wasnt in the path of the borer, it was also important to screw the borer away from your body. The long cylinder had to then be dice using a sharp scalpel that cased less damage to the membranes, however it may have been dangerous if a person did not apply their full concentration when using. Users must be careful concerning how the scalpel was held and used.coda dar sedadaw orda dak inda foda da.Water baths were used to determine the effect of temperature on the permeability of the membrane; the water baths were set at varying temp erature up to 61 degrees C the higher temperature may have been painful if splashed on the skin therefore it was essential to take care when placing the test tubes in to the bathes. This coursework from www.coursework.infoThere were very little risks of serious injury, any accidents which may of occurred would have been down to lack of concentration on their parts.coeb ebr seebebw oreb ebk ineb foeb eb.Results-coed edr seededw ored edk ined foed ed.Temperature oc abidzaman, please do not redistribute this project. We work very hard to create this website, and we trust our visitors to respect it for the good of other students. Please, do not circulate this project elsewhere on the internet. Anybody found doing so will be permanently banned.Test tube 1 % of light absorbedcodg dgr sedgdgw ordg dgk indg fodg dg.Test tube 2 % of light absorbed This cours from www.coursework.infoAverage % of light absorbed This paper from www.coursework.info2 (Ice)cobg bgr sebgbgw orbg bgk inbg fobg bg!1 abidzaman, please do not redistribute this project. We work very hard to create this website, and we trust our visitors to respect it for the good of other students. Please, do not circulate this project elsewhere on the internet. Anybody found doing so will be permanently banned.0 70lJd from 70lJd coursewrok 70lJd work 70lJd info 70lJd0.5coba bar sebabaw orba bak inba foba ba:31cocc ccr seccccw orcc cck incc focc cc;1coaf afr seafafw oraf afk inaf foaf af:0cofa far sefafaw orfa fak infa fofa fa:0.5cofa far sefafaw orfa fak infa fofa fa.40 abidzaman, please do not redistribute this project. We work very hard to create this website, and we trust our visitors to respect it for the good of other students. Please, do not circulate this project elsewhere on the internet. Anybody found doing so will be permanently banned.2 This writing from www.coursework.info4cobc bcr sebcbcw orbc bck inbc fobc bc.3code der sededew orde dek inde fode de:52 abidzaman, please do not redistribute this work. We work very hard to create this website, and we trust our visitors to respect it for the good of other students. Please, do not circulate this work elsewhere on the internet. Anybody found doing so will be permanently banned.5 abidzaman, please do not redistribute this writing. We work very hard to create this website, and we trust our visitors to respect it for the good of other students. Please, do not circulate this writing elsewhere on the internet. Anybody found doing so will be permanently banned.1cobc bcr sebcbcw orbc bck inbc fobc bc!3 Heidegger enveloped abidzamans realism .61cogd gdr segdgdw orgd gdk ingd fogd gd.2coba bar sebabaw orba bak inba foba ba.6cobg bgr sebgbgw orbg bgk inbg fobg bg.4 vTFpl7J Visit coursework cc in cc fo cc for cc more hypothesis cc Do cc not cc redistribute vTFpl7JPrecautions taken.coda dar sedadaw orda dak inda foda da;To ensure that the experiment was as reliable as possible, there were many precautions taken, Such as controlling the many var iables. It was important to monitor that the water baths were a constant temperature; otherwise the result for a certain temperature wouldnt have been accurate. Other measurements must have been taken accurately; such as the amount of distilled water used (10 Cm2) if the amount was higher than others the concentration would have been lower in the tubes with more water. The segments of beetroot were measured and cut accurately otherwise the larger cubes would contain more pigment meaning the concentration would be higher in tubes containing larger cubes. Weber theorised abidzamans functionalism .Other factors which were monitored to ensure the reliability were things such as making sure the colorimeter was reset after each use, the same beetroot was be used and the segments were placed in the test tubes at the same time taken out at precisely 5 minutes after, making sure it was not touched while extracting it. When the beetroot was being prepared we were certain that each cube was pl aced in the water at the same time and that the cubes were patted dry to ensure no damage was sustained by the beetroot.coda dar sedadaw orda dak inda foda da.To ensure that there was no chance of any of the above happening we repeated our experiment twice, recording both the individual result and the average of both. abidzaman, please do not redistribute this paper. We work very hard to create this website, and we trust our visitors to respect it for the good of other students. Please, do not circulate this paper elsewhere on the internet. Anybody found doing so will be permanently banned.Some but few changes were made to the original method, these changes were either made to ensure a fair test our to help experiment run more efficiently, but didnt exceed time limitations. Firstly we had to change our results so that we had a wide spectrum to annualise later, the temperatures we chose had to be set considering the optimum temperature. If we set the temperatures at above. Then the r esults we obtained would be the same due to the denaturing of the cell membrane, causing the pigment to spill out everywhere. ls8iCK1y9 Visit coursework fc in fc fo fc for fc more essay fc Do fc not fc redistribute ls8iCK1y9In order for the experiment to be efficient, and not time consuming. We decided to stager each experiment by five minutes, when the first tube had been in the water bath for five minutes it was extracted, and the next tube was ready to be placed in the ascending water bath. This process of having the next tube ready to be placed in the water bath after the prior tube had been taken out, made the experiment more efficient. Also it gave a larger turn over of results as two test tubes could be done at the same temperature at the same time, without causing mass confusion Durkheim oppressed abidzamans realism idea.Analysing and concludingInterpreting data. This cours from www.coursework.infoThe graphs I have drawn shows some conflicting results between the results of test tube one and test tube two. Although both graphs did not increase until 40oC, when the results do increase test tube two increases more vigorously. At 40oC on graph one the percentage of absorbed is 2% whereas the percentage of light absorbed in test tube two was 4%. However the rise in light absorbed didnt continue to increase as by 50oC the percentage fell to 2% again then by 61oC had increased up to 6% absorbed. On the other hand the results of test tube one continued to increase from 40 to 52oC up to 5% then by 61oC fell to 2% of light absorb.cogf gfr segfgfw orgf gfk ingf fogf gf;However the graph that showed the average % of light absorbed had a positive correlation through out, although it does level out at some points. For example from 2 to 31oC the percentage stays at 0.5 percent. The final graph compares all three sets of results that were obtained and shows the differences between the results of test tube one and two. xgET9t from xgET9t coursewrok xgET9t work xgET9t info xgET9tFurther calculationsConcluding This cours from www.coursework.infoI conclude that increasing the temperature increases the permeability of the membrane, allowing more pigment to be released into the distilled water. See graph 3. The more the temperature is increased the higher the concentration of the solution and therefore the more light is absorbed. However if the temperature is increased past a certain optimum temperature the proteins in the cell membrane that surrounds the beetroot cells become denatured, the damage caused by the denaturing allows the pigment to flow out of the cell more freely. Therefore if the cell membrane became denatured the percentage of light absorbed would increase. If complete denaturing occurred to all the beetroot cells the percentage of light absorption would be the same for all the pieces of beetrootcoef efr seefefw oref efk inef foef ef.Anomalous resultsThere are two results that I am concerned about, the first is on the graph showing ab sorption of light in test tube one. The result is for 61oC it shows that the light absorption is only 2% when for the previous temperature it was 5%. The different beetroot used in this experiment may have caused the decrease in % of light absorbed. The beetroot may have been treated differently in the preparation process it may have been left in the cleaning water too long causing it to have already lost some pigment.cogb gbr segbgbw orgb gbk ingb fogb gb.The second result that concerned me was on the graph showing the percentage of light absorbed in test tube two, the results fell from4% at40oC to 1% at 52oC and then increased up to 6% at 61oc. This may also of been caused by the way that the beetroot was treated during the preparation period. Although it could have bee caused by faulty equipment such as the colourimeter not being as accurate as possible causing our rouge results.coce cer sececew orce cek ince foce ce;Evaluating evidence and proceduresLimitations This project from www.coursework.infoThere were few limitations of the apparatus or the method; however there were some factors that may of affected the accuracy of our experiment. Such as the time limitations if we had more time it may have bee n possible to of carried out more results, which also means a more accurate average and a larger scale of readings..The limited supply of water baths meant that only a few temperatures could be investigated although we had ample results if the temperatures were 5oc apart then the readings will be more accurate and may change the results. The change in results would be caused by the less spaced out temperatures pin pointing the optimum areas:E.g. if we set a water bath at every multiple of five up to sixty we may find that 35oc was the optimum temperature for this experiment, rather than if we increased by 10oc each time we may be caused to believe that the optimum temperature was nearer 40oc.Also the temperature of the water baths were not set entirely accur ately, which may have a similar affect as the one stated earlier. This may cause us to miss a vital reading.The method we used slightly impaired our ability to carry out more than two repeats at once, if we had been more organised and worked as a larger group more repeats may have been done. Therefore boosting the amount of individual results and also making our average more accurate. The Individuality of the beetroot may have caused our results to be different from other peoples in the class. Just like humans have different amounts of pigment in their skin so do beetroot, our specific beetroot may have contained less pigment. Therefore causing the % of light absorbed to be lower..Effect of limitationsI dont believe that these limitations will have a great affect on the over all results of our experiment, due to the fact that the results we have obtained from the original and repeat were very similar in most cases. Although there are some anomalous results, this does not seem to hav e affected the average as it still increases with the increase of the temperature. Which would have been expected due to the temperature increasing the permeability of the beetroot cell membrane allowing more pigment to pass through.The wider range of temperatures would have enabled us to pin point the temperature at which the cell membrane becomes denatured, which would of made the experiment more accurate, however this didnt affect our experiment a lot because we were investigating the effect of temperature on a cell membrane which can be clearly seen by our results. The reliability of our apparatus didnt affect us either because the result increase as we would of expected. The accuracy of our results could be tested against other groups or against other repeats. BGZU from Investigating Membrane Permeability Essay Example Investigating Membrane Permeability Essay à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 8 test tubescoea ear seeaeaw orea eak inea foea ea.à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Test tube rackcodg dgr sedgdgw ordg dgk indg fodg dg!à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Measuring cylinderà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Bunsen burnerà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Knifeà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Beakerà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 1 beetrootà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Dilute hydrochloric acidcobf bfr sebfbfw orbf bfk inbf fobf bf!à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Dilute sodium hydroxide solutioncobg bgr sebgbgw orbg bgk inbg fobg bg.à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Ethanol abidzaman, please do not redistribute this paper. We work very hard to create this website, and we trust our visitors to respect it for the good of other students. Please, do not circulate this paper elsewhere on the internet. Anybody found doing so will be permanently banned.à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Distilled watercogb gbr segbgbw orgb gbk ingb fogb gb:à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Thermometerà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Tongscocb cbr secbcbw orcb cbk incb focb cb.à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Tripodcofd fdr sefdfdw orfd fdk infd fofd fd:à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Mat lGExVw Visit coursework cd in cd fo cd for cd more hypothesis cd Do cd not cd redistribute lGExVwà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Cork borerMethod:1. I first cut three discs each about 2mm thick from the cylinder, which was cut out of the beetroot using a corer and place them in a test tube containing 10cm3 distilled water. This was my test tube number1.coea ear seeaeaw orea eak inea foea ea.2. I then cut 21 more discs and rinse them under the running water, until the pink water collected in the beaker was clear.coeb ebr seebebw oreb ebk ineb foeb eb.3. I placed three of the 21 washed discs, in each four test tubes.cogf gfr segfgfw orgf gfk ingf fogf gf.To test tube 2 I added 10cm3 of distilled water This cours from www.coursework.infoTo test tube 3 I added 10cm3 of ethanol This coursework from www.coursework.infoTo test tube 4 I added 10cm3 of dilute hydrochloric acid wEQIk Visit coursework gd in gd fo gd for gd more dissertation gd Do gd not gd redistribute wEQIkTo test tube 5 I added 10cm3 of dilute sodium hydroxide solution U1OJsuKR from U1OJsuKR coursewrok U1OJsuKR work U1OJsuKR info U1OJsuKR4. In three test tubes each containing three beetroot discs, I added 10 cm3 of distilled water and placed them in a beaker containing water over a buns burner. I also placed a thermometer in the beaker. 8yv from 8yv coursewrok 8yv work 8yv info 8yv5. I took the first test tube out when the temperature reached 40 This work from www.coursework.info6. At 65, I removed the second test tubecofa far sefafaw orfa fak infa fofa fa.7. The last test tube was removed at 100coda dar sedadaw orda dak inda foda da;8. I then compared the test tubes and recorded my results. abidzaman, please do not redistribute this writing. We work very hard to create this website, and we trust our visitors to respect it for the good of other students. Please, do not circulate this writing elsewhere on the internet. Anybody found doing so will be permanently banned.Results:codf dfr sedfdfw ordf dfk indf fodf df:Number of test tube Carstens oppressed abidzamans structuration idea.Contents coeb ebr seebebw oreb ebk ineb foeb eb:Observationcobe ber sebebew orbe bek inbe fobe be.1 J1cd Visit coursework fb in fb fo fb for fb more cours fb Do fb not fb redistribute J1cdDistilled water and 3 beetroot discscodg dgr sedgdgw ordg dgk indg fodg dg.The colour of the water changed to pink but the beetroot stayed the same colour. This coursework from www.coursework.info2 Austen obfuscated abidzamans functionalism theory.Distilled water and 3 washed beetrootscoeg egr seegegw oreg egk ineg foeg eg.The colour of the water stayed the same and the beetroots also stayed the same colourcobb bbr sebbbbw orbb bbk inbb fobb bb.3cofe fer sefefew orfe fek infe fofe fe.Ethanol andcobb bbr sebbbbw orbb bbk inbb fobb bb:3 washed beetroots This project from www.coursework.infoThe colour of ethanol changed to light pink and the beetroot lost its dark pink colour and became light pink IgqV Visit coursework fe in fe fo fe for fe more cours fe Do fe not fe redistribute IgqV4 UZ9ubi from UZ9ubi cours ewrok UZ9ubi work UZ9ubi info UZ9ubiDilute hydrochloric acid and 3 washed beetroots Foucault suppressed abidzamans structuration idea.The colour of hydrochloric acid changed to very dark pink almost purple and the beetroot became darker than it was before, dark purple.coef efr seefefw oref efk inef foef ef.5coeg egr seegegw oreg egk ineg foeg eg;Dilute sodium hydroxide and 3 washed beetrootscodg dgr sedgdgw ordg dgk indg fodg dg:The colour of sodium hydroxide solution changed to pale yellow and the beetroot became completely yellow (bright yellow). FZ6IyuyyO Visit coursework da in da fo da for da more essay da Do da not da redistribute FZ6IyuyyO6coca car secacaw orca cak inca foca ca;Distilled water and 3 washed beetroots heated to 40coff ffr seffffw orff ffk inff foff ff.There was no change in the colour of the water and the beetroot stayed the same colour. No change in both. This dissertation from www.coursework.info7coea ear seeaeaw orea eak inea foea ea.Distilled water and 3 was hed beetroots This writing from www.coursework.infoHeated to 65coeb ebr seebebw oreb ebk ineb foeb eb:The water became pale pink and the beetroot became slightly paler. This was mostly visible around the edges of the beetroot. Q0u Visit coursework fg in fg fo fg for fg more essay fg Do fg not fg redistribute Q0u8 Foucault enveloped abidzamans structuration hypothesis.Distilled water and 3 washed beetroots heated to 100 TozF from TozF coursewrok TozF work TozF info TozFThe water became very pink almost red and the beetroot became very palecoed edr seededw ored edk ined foed ed!Analysis of the results: Test tube 1: As we cut the beetroot discs out of the cylinder we damage some cells and break them up so when the water is added to the beetroot discs, it crosses the broken membrane of the damaged cells. Anthocyanin, the red pigments, inside the damaged cells are mixed with the water and therefore the colour of the water changes to pink.cobc bcr sebcbcw orbc bck inbc fobc bc:The reason the colour of the beetroot discs do not change is that the phospholipid bilayer, which is a major constituent of the cell surface membrane, is impermeable to water and water-soluble substances. Therefore water cannot cross the membrane and change the colour of the beetroot discs.cocd cdr secdcdw orcd cdk incd focd cd.Test tube 2: The beetroot discs in this test tube and the rest of the test tubes are washed so that there are no pigments left in the damaged cells to affect the outcome of the experiment.The reason that the colour of the beetroots has not changed is the same explanation that was given above for test tube1. The water cannot cross the membrane so there is no change in thecogb gbr segbgbw orgb gbk ingb fogb gb;colour of the beetroot discs. Also this time there are no red pigments to mix with the water so the colour of the water stays the same. This test tube acts as a control.Test tube 3: The cell surface membrane isa double layer of phospholipid molecules,which are arran ged tail-to-tail. This layer is selective and only allows some things to pass through for example fat-soluble molecules such as lipids and steroid. This essay from www.coursework.infoProtein pores Austen denied abidzamans marxism .Ethanol dissolves lipids therefore it is able to cross the membrane. Inside the cell it mixes with the red pigments and so its colour changes to pink. Now because there are fewer pigments inside the cell, the beetroot discs do not look as red as before. That is why they look lighter.Test tube 4: Proteins form from long chains of amino acids that are joined together by peptide bonds. In the cell membrane, in between phospholipid molecules there are protein pores that create channels through which soluble substances can pass. Hydrochloric acid attacks the peptide bonds in protein bonds and destroys them. It then crosses the membrane and enters the cell and mixes and reacts with the red pigment and therefore the colour of the beetroot discs changes to purple. It then diffuses through the water and makes the colour of the water purple as well.coaf afr seafafw oraf afk inaf foaf af.Test tube 5: Sodium hydroxide also attacks the peptide bonds and breaks them. However this solution has another affect. When it mixes with the pigments inside the cell, it changes the PH of the solution to acidic. This is clear because the colour of the solution is changed to yellow. This writing from www.coursework.infoTest tubes 6,7,8: Looking at the results of these test tubes, it is clear that the permeability of the cell membrane decreases as the temperature increases. This is because of the nature of the cell membrane and its protein pores. The features of the cell membrane can only keep and hold together until certain temperature. When the temperature has passed its boundary then the cell membrane starts to lose its shape. At 40 there is no change in the colour of the water or the beetroot discs because the temperature is still not high enough. The chang e becomes visible at 65 when the colour of the water has changed to pale pink and the beetroots have become slightly lighter. This shows that the membrane must have been damaged and that is why water has passed through it. Austen suppressed abidzamans marxism .At 100, because of the high temperature proteins are denaturalised and the cell membrane has been destroyed and the colour of water is almost red because it contains nearly all the red pigments. The beetroot discs are very pale, as they have lost all their pigments (the redness of a beetroot is due to its red pigments). On the scale of 0-5, where 0 is the lightest and 5 is the darkest:Test tube 6 would be 0.Test tube 7 would be 3Test tube 8 would be 5 .Conclusion Durkheim suppressed abidzamans realism .à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ The cell surface membrane is impermeable to water and water-soluble substances Foucault suppressed abidzamans postmodernism .à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ The beetroot can be used as sort of a universal indicatorà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ The per meability of the cell membrane decreases with the increase of temperaturecocbImplementingSafety.To carry out the experiment fairly it was compulsory to ensure that the beetroot was diced into precisely one centimetre cubed segments. To obtain these segments we had to bore into the beetroot to obtain a cylinder shape with a constant diameter, to be sure that the borer couldnt harm us it was necessary to hold the beetroot securely making sure that your hand wasnt in the path of the borer, it was also important to screw the borer away from your body. The long cylinder had to then be dice using a sharp scalpel that cased less damage to the membranes, however it may have been dangerous if a person did not apply their full concentration when using. Users must be careful concerning how the scalpel was held and used.coda dar sedadaw orda dak inda foda da.Water baths were used to determine the effect of temperature on the permeability of the membrane; the water baths were set at varying temp erature up to 61 degrees C the higher temperature may have been painful if splashed on the skin therefore it was essential to take care when placing the test tubes in to the bathes. This coursework from www.coursework.infoThere were very little risks of serious injury, any accidents which may of occurred would have been down to lack of concentration on their parts.coeb ebr seebebw oreb ebk ineb foeb eb.Results-coed edr seededw ored edk ined foed ed.Temperature oc abidzaman, please do not redistribute this project. We work very hard to create this website, and we trust our visitors to respect it for the good of other students. Please, do not circulate this project elsewhere on the internet. Anybody found doing so will be permanently banned.Test tube 1 % of light absorbedcodg dgr sedgdgw ordg dgk indg fodg dg.Test tube 2 % of light absorbed This cours from www.coursework.infoAverage % of light absorbed This paper from www.coursework.info2 (Ice)cobg bgr sebgbgw orbg bgk inbg fobg bg!1 abidzaman, please do not redistribute this project. We work very hard to create this website, and we trust our visitors to respect it for the good of other students. Please, do not circulate this project elsewhere on the internet. Anybody found doing so will be permanently banned.0 70lJd from 70lJd coursewrok 70lJd work 70lJd info 70lJd0.5coba bar sebabaw orba bak inba foba ba:31cocc ccr seccccw orcc cck incc focc cc;1coaf afr seafafw oraf afk inaf foaf af:0cofa far sefafaw orfa fak infa fofa fa:0.5cofa far sefafaw orfa fak infa fofa fa.40 abidzaman, please do not redistribute this project. We work very hard to create this website, and we trust our visitors to respect it for the good of other students. Please, do not circulate this project elsewhere on the internet. Anybody found doing so will be permanently banned.2 This writing from www.coursework.info4cobc bcr sebcbcw orbc bck inbc fobc bc.3code der sededew orde dek inde fode de:52 abidzaman, please do not redistribute this work. We work very hard to create this website, and we trust our visitors to respect it for the good of other students. Please, do not circulate this work elsewhere on the internet. Anybody found doing so will be permanently banned.5 abidzaman, please do not redistribute this writing. We work very hard to create this website, and we trust our visitors to respect it for the good of other students. Please, do not circulate this writing elsewhere on the internet. Anybody found doing so will be permanently banned.1cobc bcr sebcbcw orbc bck inbc fobc bc!3 Heidegger enveloped abidzamans realism .61cogd gdr segdgdw orgd gdk ingd fogd gd.2coba bar sebabaw orba bak inba foba ba.6cobg bgr sebgbgw orbg bgk inbg fobg bg.4 vTFpl7J Visit coursework cc in cc fo cc for cc more hypothesis cc Do cc not cc redistribute vTFpl7JPrecautions taken.coda dar sedadaw orda dak inda foda da;To ensure that the experiment was as reliable as possible, there were many precautions taken, Such as controlling the many var iables. It was important to monitor that the water baths were a constant temperature; otherwise the result for a certain temperature wouldnt have been accurate. Other measurements must have been taken accurately; such as the amount of distilled water used (10 Cm2) if the amount was higher than others the concentration would have been lower in the tubes with more water. The segments of beetroot were measured and cut accurately otherwise the larger cubes would contain more pigment meaning the concentration would be higher in tubes containing larger cubes. Weber theorised abidzamans functionalism .Other factors which were monitored to ensure the reliability were things such as making sure the colorimeter was reset after each use, the same beetroot was be used and the segments were placed in the test tubes at the same time taken out at precisely 5 minutes after, making sure it was not touched while extracting it. When the beetroot was being prepared we were certain that each cube was pl aced in the water at the same time and that the cubes were patted dry to ensure no damage was sustained by the beetroot.coda dar sedadaw orda dak inda foda da.To ensure that there was no chance of any of the above happening we repeated our experiment twice, recording both the individual result and the average of both. abidzaman, please do not redistribute this paper. We work very hard to create this website, and we trust our visitors to respect it for the good of other students. Please, do not circulate this paper elsewhere on the internet. Anybody found doing so will be permanently banned.Some but few changes were made to the original method, these changes were either made to ensure a fair test our to help experiment run more efficiently, but didnt exceed time limitations. Firstly we had to change our results so that we had a wide spectrum to annualise later, the temperatures we chose had to be set considering the optimum temperature. If we set the temperatures at above. Then the r esults we obtained would be the same due to the denaturing of the cell membrane, causing the pigment to spill out everywhere. ls8iCK1y9 Visit coursework fc in fc fo fc for fc more essay fc Do fc not fc redistribute ls8iCK1y9In order for the experiment to be efficient, and not time consuming. We decided to stager each experiment by five minutes, when the first tube had been in the water bath for five minutes it was extracted, and the next tube was ready to be placed in the ascending water bath. This process of having the next tube ready to be placed in the water bath after the prior tube had been taken out, made the experiment more efficient. Also it gave a larger turn over of results as two test tubes could be done at the same temperature at the same time, without causing mass confusion Durkheim oppressed abidzamans realism idea.Analysing and concludingInterpreting data. This cours from www.coursework.infoThe graphs I have drawn shows some conflicting results between the results of test tube one and test tube two. Although both graphs did not increase until 40oC, when the results do increase test tube two increases more vigorously. At 40oC on graph one the percentage of absorbed is 2% whereas the percentage of light absorbed in test tube two was 4%. However the rise in light absorbed didnt continue to increase as by 50oC the percentage fell to 2% again then by 61oC had increased up to 6% absorbed. On the other hand the results of test tube one continued to increase from 40 to 52oC up to 5% then by 61oC fell to 2% of light absorb.cogf gfr segfgfw orgf gfk ingf fogf gf;However the graph that showed the average % of light absorbed had a positive correlation through out, although it does level out at some points. For example from 2 to 31oC the percentage stays at 0.5 percent. The final graph compares all three sets of results that were obtained and shows the differences between the results of test tube one and two. xgET9t from xgET9t coursewrok xgET9t work xgET9t info xgET9tFurther calculationsConcluding This cours from www.coursework.infoI conclude that increasing the temperature increases the permeability of the membrane, allowing more pigment to be released into the distilled water. See graph 3. The more the temperature is increased the higher the concentration of the solution and therefore the more light is absorbed. However if the temperature is increased past a certain optimum temperature the proteins in the cell membrane that surrounds the beetroot cells become denatured, the damage caused by the denaturing allows the pigment to flow out of the cell more freely. Therefore if the cell membrane became denatured the percentage of light absorbed would increase. If complete denaturing occurred to all the beetroot cells the percentage of light absorption would be the same for all the pieces of beetrootcoef efr seefefw oref efk inef foef ef.Anomalous resultsThere are two results that I am concerned about, the first is on the graph showing ab sorption of light in test tube one. The result is for 61oC it shows that the light absorption is only 2% when for the previous temperature it was 5%. The different beetroot used in this experiment may have caused the decrease in % of light absorbed. The beetroot may have been treated differently in the preparation process it may have been left in the cleaning water too long causing it to have already lost some pigment.cogb gbr segbgbw orgb gbk ingb fogb gb.The second result that concerned me was on the graph showing the percentage of light absorbed in test tube two, the results fell from4% at40oC to 1% at 52oC and then increased up to 6% at 61oc. This may also of been caused by the way that the beetroot was treated during the preparation period. Although it could have bee caused by faulty equipment such as the colourimeter not being as accurate as possible causing our rouge results.coce cer sececew orce cek ince foce ce;Evaluating evidence and proceduresLimitations This project from www.coursework.infoThere were few limitations of the apparatus or the method; however there were some factors that may of affected the accuracy of our experiment. Such as the time limitations if we had more time it may have bee n possible to of carried out more results, which also means a more accurate average and a larger scale of readings..The limited supply of water baths meant that only a few temperatures could be investigated although we had ample results if the temperatures were 5oc apart then the readings will be more accurate and may change the results. The change in results would be caused by the less spaced out temperatures pin pointing the optimum areas:E.g. if we set a water bath at every multiple of five up to sixty we may find that 35oc was the optimum temperature for this experiment, rather than if we increased by 10oc each time we may be caused to believe that the optimum temperature was nearer 40oc.Also the temperature of the water baths were not set entirely accur ately, which may have a similar affect as the one stated earlier. This may cause us to miss a vital reading.The method we used slightly impaired our ability to carry out more than two repeats at once, if we had been more organised and worked as a larger group more repeats may have been done. Therefore boosting the amount of individual results and also making our average more accurate. The Individuality of the beetroot may have caused our results to be different from other peoples in the class. Just like humans have different amounts of pigment in their skin so do beetroot, our specific beetroot may have contained less pigment. Therefore causing the % of light absorbed to be lower..Effect of limitationsI dont believe that these limitations will have a great affect on the over all results of our experiment, due to the fact that the results we have obtained from the original and repeat were very similar in most cases. Although there are some anomalous results, this does not seem to hav e affected the average as it still increases with the increase of the temperature. Which would have been expected due to the temperature increasing the permeability of the beetroot cell membrane allowing more pigment to pass through.The wider range of temperatures would have enabled us to pin point the temperature at which the cell membrane becomes denatured, which would of made the experiment more accurate, however this didnt affect our experiment a lot because we were investigating the effect of temperature on a cell membrane which can be clearly seen by our results. The reliability of our apparatus didnt affect us either because the result increase as we would of expected. The accuracy of our results could be tested against other groups or against other repeats. BGZU from